Crustal structure across the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone offshore Poland based on a new refraction/wide-angle reflection profile and potential field modelling
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This paper presents a 230-km long refraction/wide-angle reflection profile that was acquired in the southern Baltic Sea across the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ), the boundary between the East European Craton (EEC) and the West European Platform (WEP). This profile is nearly parallel to the western Polish coast, halfway between Poland and the Danish island of Bornholm. The data acquisition was conducted with 15 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and 2 land stations. We applied the trial-and-error iterative ray-tracing technique using all identified seismic phases to derive crustal models by minimizing misfit between calculated and observed P-wave travel-times for individual layers. Final velocity model was further verified by forward potential field modelling, testing various P-wave velocity (Vp) to density relationships. The Moho boundary was inferred at 33-38 km depth, deepening towards the EEC, with the local ~3 km rise in a 40-km-wide zone north of the Caledonian Deformation Front, corresponding to the elevated middle-crust velocities Vp >6.5 km/s. The lower and middle crust are mostly continuous along the BalTec profile with only minor perturbations between the EEC and WEP. Nevertheless, the thickness of these crustal layers is poorly constrained by seismic data along the SW section of the profile. In contrast, the upper crust and sedimentary cover can be subdivided into three domains, corresponding, from the NE to SW, to the EEC, TTZ and WEP, respectively. The EEC is characterised by the flat top of the basement, uniformly inclined towards the SW. The TTZ shows rapid thinning of cratonic upper crust and thickening of sedimentary layer. The WEP reveals, despite limited seismic coverage, a 13-km thick sedimentary overburden. The lateral changes of seismic structure within the upper crust and sedimentary cover along the BalTec profile can be attributed to protracted phases of late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic extension punctuated by the Carboniferous and Late Cretaceous inversion phases.